Although smartwatches are gaining popularity among mainstream consumers, the input space is limited due to their small form factor. The goal of this work is to explore how to design non-touchscreen gestures to extend the input space of smartwatches. We conducted an elicitation study eliciting gestures for 31 smartwatch tasks. From this study, we demonstrate that a consensus exists among the participants on the mapping of gesture to command and use this consensus to specify a user-defined gesture set. Using gestures collected during our study, we define a taxonomy describing the mapping and physical characteristics of the gestures. Lastly, we provide insights to inform the design of non-touchscreen gestures for smartwatch interaction.

Shaikh Shawon Arefin Shimon, Courtney Lutton, Zichun Xu, Sarah Morrison-Smith, Christina Boucher, and Jaime Ruiz. 2016. Exploring Non-touchscreen Gestures for Smartwatches. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 3822-3833. DOI:

 author = {Arefin Shimon, Shaikh Shawon and Lutton, Courtney and Xu, Zichun and Morrison-Smith, Sarah and Boucher, Christina and Ruiz, Jaime},
 title = {Exploring Non-touchscreen Gestures for Smartwatches},
 booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
 series = {CHI '16},
 year = {2016},
 isbn = {978-1-4503-3362-7},
 location = {San Jose, California, USA},
 pages = {3822--3833},
 numpages = {12},
 url = {},
 doi = {10.1145/2858036.2858385},
 acmid = {2858385},
 publisher = {ACM},
 address = {New York, NY, USA},
 keywords = {elicitation study, gestures, interaction, smartwatch, think-aloud, wearables},